The top of the Liker Pyramid is problem solving. This involves gathering data and using the PDSA cycle (Plan, Do, Study, Act) to continuously improve your organization.
It is important to have a basic understanding of problem solving to successfully achieve this step. Whenever you read a book on problem solving, this model, in some form or other, is sure to be there. It may have six steps rather than seven, or it may have five steps. However, the model doesn’t really change…just the authors’ ways of breaking it down.